European are the result of a historical fabrication. Intellectuals in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries created logos, heroes and events. Historical novels, public monuments, exhibits, museums and teachings guaranteed their propaganda. Century XIX inEurope is the century of people and creation of cultures and languages.
Nowaday, people often define the nation as "a broadly general group characterized by its unifying sense (history, society, culture) and the desire to live together" (definition by Le Petit Robert, 1996). But to express the will to live together, for each nation, not only must develop a sense of unity but also build it.
Because, at the end of the eighteenth century, it was only a postulate, in general contrasting with the most obvious social realities. To support these imaginary communities, ie, nations, to be born, they must give them a history, a language, a common culture. It was a huge career, mobilizing scholars, writers and artists for decades.
So what is a nation? As a general understanding, created at the end of the nineteenth century and revived recently, there are two opposing views on the nation. The subjective concept, called the concept of the dharma, originates from the revolution: considering belonging to a people is a manifestation of a rational and contractual choice to join a community.
Objectively, considered to be German and associated with the Romantic Movement, the determination of national dependence on ethnic and cultural norms. This opposition is fiction, since both are interconnected in an intrinsic way, even if they are emphatically differentiated according to political and social contexts.
Ethnic, the embodiment of the supreme people The idea of the nation, in the sense we bring to this term, is synonymous with the great ideological revolution of the late 18th century, bringing ultimate legitimacy to the people and refuting the division of society. Unlike a group of residents identified by dependence on the same king, the nation is considered independent of the dynastic and military history: it existed before and after the monarch. Due to the unexpectedness of history, it may be oppressed or divided, but it is obligatory to fight for its freedom.
Ethnicity is understood as a general birth by the establishment of an equality and a principle of compassion among its members. As we see it, the idea is subversive and, on the national level, it sets a parity between the mightiest nobleman and the poorest farmer. It is also divided into the power of social and political change. To do this, it must form the collective identity of the members of the nation, on which one can develop a sense of belonging, derived from references and common practices.
All recognized people actually have a long history and continue to establish connections between the founding and present ancestors, a language, heroes, cultural monuments, monuments history, memories, folk traditions, symbolic landscapes.
Elementary school teaches the structure of the collective heritage, which today is the mold of all the symbols of the nation, from the collection of bank money to the formal ceremony. Basically, the completion was completed in the nineteenth century.
1. The formation of the national languages
The French speak French, Swede speaks Swedish, Polish speaks Polish, Bulgarian speaks Bulgarian, etc. It seems natural to us that all nations are identical to one. Languages are unique. But the linguistic landscape of European Enlightenment is not exactly the same as our landscape, as national boundaries coincide with linguistic boundaries. In the same space, the language used by individuals depends on their social status and context. The rural population speaks only dialects in oral form, while many written languages (worship language, administrative language, court language) coexist.
The Berlin Academy texts were written in French following Frederick II of Prussia, and the philosopher Johann Gottgried Herder blamed German-speaking nobles only for their horses and their servants. In a relatively large part of Europe, French was the language of the court and cultural language, but many of the people of the French kingdom did not speak French.
Throughout Europe, language identity has emerged as a necessary condition for national realization such as social and cultural unification. Sometimes it is common to use an existing language, either in the public (in France) or within the elite (in Germany). But it is very common to start by building a common language.
The process of creating that language is associated with the emergence of national claims that are still pursued today. Especially now, as new states emerge from the breakup of Yugoslavia (the division between Serbian and Croatian, languages that were built by the wise men in the nineteenth century as a unified language in two syllables, the Macedonian national language statement, separate from bulgare). The request for recognition of a non-territory roman tribe, submitted in Prague in July 2000, included a project to encode a unified language from the dialects spoken by various Romans and Tsriansin Europe.
The scholars, writers, and painters at that time tried to distinguish among them those that were particularly in the history of the nation and which were the subjects of the community's reverence.
For example, in 1831 in Paris, published a historical novel that took the church as its character. The writer of Notre Dame Paris gives its readers a lesson in the history of the Middle Ages, in which the poor are given a beautiful part: the author also gives the reader a lesson in gothic architecture. At that time not much attention. To the point Victor Hugo uttered: "Preserve our historical monuments. If possible, bring the inspiration of the nation to the love of national architecture." Several years later, a historic monument commission was established, responsible for listing buildings that would be preserved and restored.
At the same time, the German bourgeoisie was mobilized into a great work initiated by several Rhönen scholars: restoring Cologne Cathedral, so that it became a metaphor for the building of German unity.
2. The history and the myths of the nation
In the 19th century, ethnic groups have no history. Only in the decades that followed, the first stories delineated the existence of these entities through the new eras prepared by liberal and patriotic intellectuals. Other national histories are fundamentally with the history of the king. A nation that never invaded the territory of its neighbors.
Over the centuries, it only opposed oppression and aggression, drastically protecting the land left by the ancestors with stumbling and unhappiness. Her heroes belong to all walks of life, including the most ordinary: peasants (rarely women farmers) stand up fiercely against enemies and tyrants. The leading unification and long-term inheritance of the national entity are two basic principles of national histories, so they cover the differences of regional histories or conflicts between divisions of the nation.
In contrast, all the time, albeit very temporary, of strategic solidarity are appreciated. In the history of the French nation, it is well known that the legacy of the coalition of several Gaulois leaders before the Roman army.
Along with the development of national history, a new collective heritage, historical monuments, has emerged. Until then, relatively old buildings were identified by their use. Their owners can do whatever they like. If they have money, they modernize them to suit their current preferences. The Romanesque or Gothic churches are periodically beautified in a new fashion, and in order to impress, a choir of XIII thrones is placed on a baroque altar. A poor boss or anxious to rationalize his or her property is delighted to turn a former monastery or a feudal castle into a stone workplace.
The history of the nation highlights the circumstances and typical figures, which are also lessons and patterns for the upcoming battle. It creates a collective memory for later being evolved by education and also by a large collection of literary and artistic creation. Historical fiction, first introduced by Walter Scott early in the nineteenth century, is an effective means of spreading popular understanding of the nation's history in terms of sentiment and identity with its heroes.
The Risorgimento novels in Italy, in the 1830s, fostered struggles against foreign tyrants and honored the building of the Lombardy Alliance against Fréderic Barberouse, and played an important role in building Italy's unified consciousness, the premise of unity.
3. Ethnic identity: a symbolic landscape
In the nineteenth century, there was also a systematic ethnicization followed by all the cultural productions of earlier eras: literary works of the centuries reclassified National evaluations, often meaningless for the time they were created. It is thus increasing the understanding of the nation as a pre-existing one, which the present generation is obliged to faithfully and impartially.
Today, when we look at a billboard advertising tourism, we know how to guess the address that is targeted. If we could link a landscape with a country, it was done in the nineteenth century by a vast unfinished work of national identity codification.
Like historical monuments, symbolic landscapes also become iconic and literary objects, then widely disseminated through photography, postcards, and advertising. Many mobilization campaigns and many associations are created to protect them. Also there, the principle of the highest collective rights to real estate is laid down, so that the owner can not change his or her liking.
The first official decisions on the protection of natural landscapes in France were made in 1861: these decisions limited the protected areas in the natural state of the Fontainebleau forest, which is identical to the picture was drawn several decades before.
4. The folklore and traditional setting
In the nineteenth century, farmers became the most typical national entity. The peasant class was regarded as a living museum of national origins, which held a thread directly to the ancestor thanks to its traditions. It is not considered as having close relations with the land of the nation.
It is not surprising, then, that so many surveys and collectibles have been conducted, the purpose of which is to discover the true basis of ethnic cultures. The earliest collectors, at the end of the eighteenth century, had issued a cry of alarm: traditions were about to disappear forever, collecting them was an urgent duty of patriotism. But as time goes on the folklore is richer.
Where the first observers complained that it was too late, decades later, their followers found rich descriptions: especially in the case of traditional costumes. Descriptive and illustrative abundance dating back to the 1830s. It seems that the traditional setting, speaking in a famous way, or at least improving them, has held an important place in many folklore. of the 19th century.
Nevertheless, the more industrialized and urbanized the European people are, the more they inscribe their identity in reference to ancientity and the peasantry. In the great exhibitions of their identity, ie international exhibitions, since 1951, the machinery booths are next to the exhibitions of folk traditions of the nation and the village of learners.
Created by traditional homes built on the occasion, sometimes set in a context that evokes symbolic national landscapes, these villages make visitors enjoy the farmer's delight. Typical dressed people are milking cows and doing rituals at the announced time of the show.
The Swedish International Exhibition in Paris in 1878 was a great success and brought a decisive momentum to open ethnographic museums in all major European capitals. These museums are clearly dedicated to patriotic education and inspire a genuine national culture. The emergence and dissemination of the principle of the nation is closely tied to economic and technical changes: industrial revolutions and modern capitalism.